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Dr. Sumit Seth,is a career diplomat,member of prestigious Indian Foreign Service.He happens to be the youngest post-graduate of Forensic Medicine in India.

Friday, December 25, 2009

AIIMS MD Entrance Exam November 2009

The following questions could be answered from the 3rd Edition of Review of Forensic Medicine ROFM "

1 . HATTERS SHAKE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ( Page 185 ROFM 3rd Edition)

· ARSENIC
· LEAD
· MERCURY
· COPPER

Explanation Notes :
Symptoms: Acid metallic taste, hoarse voice, greyish white coating of tongue, blood-stained stool, circulatory collapse, necrosis of jaw, membranous, colitis, proximal renal tubular necrosis.*
Acrodynia*(Acro-Limbs Odynia-Pain) is seen in mercury poisoning (Pink’s Disease),It is Pain,swelling and parasthesia of Limbs
Mimimata disease—Contamination of fish with mercury, at a place called Minimate Bay in Japan.
Chronic Poisoning: (Hydrar gyrism)
• The symptoms are salivation, sore mouth and throat, fine tremors of the tongue, hands, arms, anemia.
Shaking palsy is associated with Hg poisoning.
Mercurial tremors are also called hatter’s shakes or glass blower’s shake.(Danbury Tremors)
Mercurial erethism** is seen in persons working with mercury in mirror manufacturing firms. Erethism is characterized by shyness, timidity, irritability, loss of confidence, mental depression, loss of memory and insomnia. (Psychological symptoms).
Mercurialentis is a peculiar eye change due to brownish deposit of mercury through the cornea on the anterior lens capsule (Brown-Malt Reflex*). It is bilateral and has no effect on visual acuity


2. DRIED SEMEN ON CLOTHS CAN BE DETECTED BY ( Page 108 )



· INFRA RED
· SPECTROSCOPY
· MAGNIFYING LENS
· ULTRAVIOLET RAY


Explanation Notes:
Seminal Fluid
• Seminal stains have to be detected in cases of rape or attempted rape, sexual murder of the female, sodomy and bestiality.
• Fertility of fluid has to be proved in disputed paternity.
• Seminal fluid choline is originated from Leyding cells.
Smegma: If the smegma is present around glans of penis, it is suggestive of the fact that an individual did not have sexual intercourse in last 24 hours.
CHEMICAL EXAMINATION
a. Florence test: (Choline Per. Iodide cystols)
• The stain is extracted by 1% hydrochloric acid and a drop is placed on a glass slide.
• A drop of Florence solution (Postassium iodine, iodine and water) is allowed to run under the cover slip.
• If semen is present, dark-brown crystals of choline iodide appear immediately.
• They are rhombic crystals resembling haemin.
A negative test means the fluid is not semen.
b. Barberio’s test:
• A saturated aqueous or alcoholic solution of picric acid* when added to spermatic fluid, produces yellow needle shaped rhombic crystals of spermine picrate.
• In Barberio’s test, presence of spermine in semen is detected.
• Spermine picrate crystals are seen.
c. The Acid phosphatase test:
• The prostatic secretion element of seminal fluid contains a very much higher percentage of acid phosphatase.
• This test is conclusive in the absence of demonstrable sperms or in aspermia.
d. Creatine phosphokinase: Level of CPK is high in seminol fluids, can be detected in old stains of 6 months.
e. Ammouium molybdate test:
• For semen stains, detect presence of phosphorous.
f. Glycoprotein P30: This test has replaced the quantitative analysis for acid phosphatase.
g. MHS-S1 is also positive and a highly reliable test for semen.
h. Serological typing of the semen is possible by precipitin method.






101. SECTION 377 DEALS WITH( Page 270)

· RAPE
· ADULTRY
· INCEST
· UNNATURAL SEXUAL OFFENCE


Explanatory Notes:
Medico-legally Important Sections/Acts
Medico-legal Important Sections
Indian Penal Code
• Sec 44 Injury
• Sec 84 Act of a person of unsound mind/McNaughtens Rule
• Sec 85 Act of a person who is intoxicated against will
• Sec 191 & sec 193 definition and Punishment of perjury
Offence Affecting Human Body
Sec 299 to Sec 377
• Sec 299 Culpable Homicide
• Sec 300 Murder
• Sec 302 Punishment of murder/infanticide*
• Sec 304 Culpable Homicide not amounting to murder
• Sec 304 A Causing death by negligence*
• Sec 304 B Dowry Death
Sections Related to Criminal Abortion
• Sec 312 to Sec 316
Abandonment of Child under 12 years
• Sec 317
Concealment of birth
• Sec 318
Hurt
Sec 319
Grievous Hurt
• Sec 320
Assault
• Sec 351
Assault to Outrage the Modesty of Women
• Sec 354
Rape
Definition Sec 375
Punishment Sec 376
Unnatural Sexual offense
Sec 377
Criminal Procedure Code
Sec 174 Police Inquest
Sec 176 Magistrate’s Inquest
Indian Evidence Act
Sec 32 Dying Declaration
Medico-legal Important Acts

1. Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945
(Framed under: Drugs Act, 1940)
• Classification of drugs in schedules:
– C– Biological and special products.
– E– Poisons.
– F– Vaccines and Sera.
– G– Hormonal preparations.
– H–Drugs/poisons to be sold prescription of RMP.
– J– Diseases for cure of which no drug should be advertised.
– L– Antibodies, Antihistaminic, chemothera- peutic agents.
2. Employees State Insurance Act 1948
3. Indian Medical Council Act 1956
Schedule 1—India
Schedule 2—Outside India
4. The Medical Termination of 1971,
Pregnancy Act (Amend 1975)
5. The Narcotic Drugs & 1985
Psychotropic Substance Act
6. Consumer Protection Act 1986
7. Mental Health Act 1987
8. Organs Transplantation of Human Act 1994
9. Prenatal Diagnostic Technique 1994(Amend in 2000)






4. A TEACHER SLAPPED A GIRL STUDENT ,SHE SUFFERED FROM 25%HEARING LOSS WHICH RESOLVED ON SURGERY WHAT KIND OF INJURY THIS IS ( Page 68 )



· SIMPLE
· GRIEVIOUS
· DANGEROUS
· PUNISHMENT
Medico-legal Importance Of Injuries
Important Definitions
1. Injury: Any harm whatever illegaly caused in Body, Mind, Reputation or Property (Memory Aid ® BMR is an important concept of Physiology)
• Section Forty four (44), IPC.
2. Murder: Definition is under section 300 IPC and punishment under Section 302 IPC.
3. Hurt:
• Section 319 (IPC)
Bodily pain, Disease or Infirmity caused to a person (BID).
4. Grievous Hurt
• According to S 320 I.P.C(Only Defines*) any of the following injury is grievous: The eight clauses of grievous injury can be remembered with the help of sentence—“Every Student Has reMEMBERed Injury’s Definition and Forgot it within 20 days of Passing Exams”.
1. Emasculation (Impotency/ sterility).
2. Permanent privation (loss) of Sight of either eye.
3. Permanent privation of Hearing of either ear. ( Permanence is in ordinary course of nature , irrespective of medical treatment)
4. Privatation of any Member or joint.
5. Destruction or permanent Impairing of the power of any member or joint.
6. Permanent Disfiguration of the head and face.
7. Fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth.(Discontinuity till medullary Cavity is considered grievous)
8. Any hurt which Endangers life or, which causes the victim to be in the severe bodily Pain or unable to follow his ordinary pursuits (not mere hospitalization) for a period of 20 days.
5. Dangerous Weapon*(Sec 324 &Sec 326 IPC)
Any weapon used for Stabbing Shooting or Cutting(S.S.C),or is likely to cause death


163. CAUSTIC POISON ERODES MUCOSA BECAUSE



· HYGROSCOPIC IN NATURE
· IT HAS GLUE LIKE ACTION
· IT IS BEING PROGRAMMED TO STICK
· IT HAS AFFINITY FOR MUCOSA


Alkalis include sodium, potassium, and ammonium hydroxide and are bases and hygroscopic in nature thus they dissolve in water. They all contain a positive radical and a hydroxyl group. Alkalis produce a liquefaction necrosis when they come in contact with mucosa and penetrate deeply with full thickness burns common.

Acids cause coagulation necrosis; an eschar forms, limiting further damage. Acids tend to affect the stomach more than the esophagus.

Alkalis ( more damage than acids) cause rapid liquefaction necrosis; no eschar forms, and damage continues until the alkali is neutralized or diluted. Alkalis tend to affect the esophagus more than the stomach, but ingestion of large quantities severely affects both.


165. FEATURES OF ANTE MORTEM BURN ARE All /Except ( Page 127- 128 )



· VESICLE WITH HYPERAEMIC BASE
· RED LINE
· VESICLE WITH AIR
. VITAL REACTION PRESENT
Explanation
Difference between Anti-mortem and Post- mortem burns
Trait Ante mortem Post- mortem
burns
1. Line of redness i. Present i. Absent
2. Blister ii. Contains serous ii. Contains air only.
fluid with Base is dry hard
proteins and and yellow
chlorides. Base
is inflamed
3. Vital reaction iii. Present iii. Absent
4. Enzymes iv. Increase in iv. Does not show
enzyme reaction increase in
and SH group. enzyme reaction.
5. CO Hb v. More than 5% v. Less
of CO Hb

13 comments:

Anonymous said...

Kamaal hai Sir...how do u manage to solve Aiims papers all the way from America!!

Term Papers said...

I have been visiting various blogs for my term papers writing research. I have found your blog to be quite useful. Keep updating your blog with in valuable information... Regards

shaheena said...

sir,i would like to knw if hairline fracture comes under grevious hurt..??the question in kerala state entrance..all except included in gervious hurt
a.privation of sight
b.privation of hearing
c.hairline fracture of digit
d.superficial gunshot injury in the thigh.

doctorsumitseth said...

@Shaheena


Tha answer is C.

Only when the fracture reaches medullary cavity, it is consider Grievous, hairline fracture is not grievous.


All the very best.

Warm Regards

shaheena said...

sir,another doubt
what is the difference between culpaple homicide and murder

culpable homicide sec 299
is when done
a.without intention of causing injury
b.without intention of causing death
c.with intention of causing death
d.a form of suicide

doctorsumitseth said...

Homicide refers to criminal and noncriminal (justifiable) murder.

Culpable homicide is punishable homicide it may amount to murder or not amounting to murder

homicide could be unintentional may be due to negligence Sec 304 A.

Important sections asked:

• Sec 299 Culpable Homicide
• Sec 300 Murder
• Sec 302 Punishment of murder/infanticide*
• Sec 304 Culpable Homicide not amounting to murder
• Sec 304 A Causing death by negligence*
• Sec 304 B Dowry Death ( Memory Cue: 304 BBride Burning )

Jiten said...

sir aiims nov que 2009 Q 4 abt hearing of child recovering after surgery , wouldn't it be simple injury bcoz greivious requires "Permanent Privation"

doctorsumitseth said...

Jiten, The permanence of privation is irrespective of medical treatment..in ordinary course of nature..the hearing loss is permanent!! thats why its a Grievous Injury..Best Wishes

brainharry said...

Thank you considerably for this define, and every one of your
worthwhile informative posts of the past!forensic research

Anonymous said...

Sir,the following question in forensic medicine was asked in NEET PG to my friend-"Marshall effect is seen in?"Options not recollected.Can you please tell us the answer as we couldnt find it anywhere.Thanks.

Sanchana Sana said...

Thanks for the information... I really love your blog posts... specially those on Indian medicine

roy said...

Hi one doubt from history of Forensic Medicine.
Where was the first chair of professor of Medical jurisprudence established in India?

I have two answers from various sources. One source gives Kolkata Medical College in 1845. Another source gives Madras Medical College in 1857.

Who was the first professor of Medical jurisprudence in India?

Most books give Dr. CTO Woodford in Kolkata Medical College. One source gives Dr. Dr Urguhart, a private practitioner and coroner of Madras as the
first professor at the first separate chair in medical
jurisprudence created in Madras medical
college.

roy said...

Coroner’s Act 1811 was introduced by British in Kolkata and Mumbai (Concise Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology) by R.K. Sharma. Other books give Coroner's Act 1971. Which is correct?