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Dr. Sumit Seth,is a career diplomat,member of prestigious Indian Foreign Service.He happens to be the youngest post-graduate of Forensic Medicine in India.

Sunday, November 23, 2008

AIIMS PG NOVEMBER 2008

75. WHAT IS FALLANGA?

A. BEATING ON SOLES WITH BLUNT OBJECT
B. Plucking hairs
C. Persistent pushing of head into vomit
D. Beating on soles



76.HYDROCUTION REFERS TO?

A. DROWNING IN COLD WATER
B. ELECTROCUTION IN WATER
C. POST MORTEM IMMERSION
D. IMMERSION IN BOILING WATER

77.NOT A CONSTITUENT OF EMBALMING FLUID?

A. PHENOL
B. ETHANAOL
C.FORMALIN
D. GLYCERINE

Explanation: Typically embalming fluid contains a mixture of formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and other solvents. The formaldehyde content generally ranges from 5 to 29 percent and the ethanol content may range from 9 to 56 percent.

Embalming fluid is injected into the arteries of the deceased during embalming. Many other bodily fluids may be drained or aspirated and replaced with the fluid as well. The process of embalming is designed to slow the decomposition of the body.

Chemicals and additives

Potential ingredients include:

a. Preservative. 18%-35% mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde or in some cases phenol which are then diluted to gain the final index of the arterial solution. Methanol is used to hold the formaldehyde in solution. Formalin refers specifically to 37% aqueous formaldehyde and is not commonly used in funeral embalming but rather in the preservation of anatomical specimens.

b. Water Conditioner. These are designed to balance the "hardness" of water (the presence of other trace chemicals that changes the water's pH or neutrality) and to help reduce the deceased's acidity, a by-product of decomposition, as formaldehyde works best in an alkaline environment. Additionally, water conditioners may be used to help "inactivate" chemotherapy drugs and antibiotics which may bind to and render ineffectual the preservative chemical.

c. Cell Conditioner. These chemicals act to prepare cells for absorption of arterial fluid and help break up clots in the bloodstream.

d. Dyes. Active dyes are use to restore someone's natural colouration and counterstain against conditions such as jaundice as well as to indicate distribution of arterial fluid. Inactive dyes are used by the manufacturer of the arterial fluid to give a pleasant color to the fluid in the bottle, but does nothing for the appearance of the embalmed body.

e. Humectants. These are added to dehydrated and emaciated bodies to help restore tissue to a more natural and hydrated appearance.

f. Anti-Edemic Chemicals. The opposite of humectants these are designed to draw excessive fluid (edema) from a body.

g. Additional Disinfectants. For certain cases, such as tissue gas, specialist chemicals normally used topically such as Dis-Spray are added to an arterial solution.

h. Water. Most arterial solutions are a mix of some of the preceding chemicals with tepid water. Cases done without the addition of water are referred to specifically as "waterless". Waterless embalming is very effective but not economically viable for everyday cases

i. Cavity Fluid. This is a generally a very high index formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde solution injected undiluted directly via the trocar incision into the body cavities to treat the viscera. In cases of tissue gas phenol based products are often used instead.


Now what is meant by HUMECTANT??


A humectant is a hygroscopic substance. Examples of humectants include glycerine, propylene glycol and glyceryl triacetate. Others can be polyols like sorbitol, xylitol and maltitol, or polymeric polyols like polydextrose or natural extracts like quillaia, or lactic acid or urea. Lithium chloride is an excellent humectant but is toxic.

Although glycerine is itself not a germicide and has no preservative quality, it does increase the germ killing power of other chemicals, probably because it is an excellent solvent for disinfecting chemicals; its good solvent ability makes it an efficient carrier for the chemicals. Glycerine is also a good lubricator and is hygroscopic. If retained in tissues, it helps to prevent dehydration.

AND REGARDING PHENOL, REFERENCE FROM "Page number 124 & 125 of Embalming By Robert G. Mayer, Jacquelyn Taylor"

Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, phenol was one of the most commonly found components of both arterial and cavity fluids manufactured in the early days of the fluid industry. Today, it is used chiefly in cavity fluid formulations. Phenol is a coal-tar derivative that is a colorless crstalline solid. Upon exposure to strong light or metallic contamination, it darkens and assumes an amber or reddish brown appearance when in solution. The potency of phenol is not impaired to any great extent when such change occurs.

Phenol penetrates the skin very readily and is very rapidly absorbed by protein structures. Phenol and phenolic derivatives are good germicides. In addition, they assist formaldehyde in forming insoluble resins with albumins. Generally, their use in embalming fluids is confined to cavity fluids because they tend to produce a "putty gray” tissue. Formulations containing these compounds are often used as bleaching agents to lighten discolorations on the skin surface. The solution either is applied as an external pack or is injected subcutaneously with a hypodermic syringe.



78. THANATOLOGY IS STUDY OF?

A. DEATH
B. POLLEN GRAINS
C. DEAD NEW BORN
D. POST MORTEM INTERVAL

79.A MAN WORKING AS A PEST KILLER COMES TO OPD WITH PAIN ABDOMEN AND GARLIC ODOUR IN BREATH WITH TRANSVERSE LINES ON NAILS.POSONING IS DUE TO?

A. LEAD
B,ARSENIC
C.MERCURY
D. CADMIUM

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